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أرشيف المدونة الإلكترونية

الجمعة، 21 مايو، 2010

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In recent decades, cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. Explain the causes of this phenomenon.

Be sure to give specific details and reasons in your explanation.

Cause/effect paragraphs generally follow basic paragraph format. That is, they begin with a topic sentence and this sentence is followed by specific supporting details. For example, if the topic sentence introduces an effect, the supporting sentences all describe causes. Here is an example:

In recent decades, cities have grown so large that now about 50% of the Earth's population lives in urban areas. There are several reasons for this occurrence. First, the increasing industrialization of the nineteenth century resulted in the creation of many factory jobs, which tended to be located in cities. These jobs, with their promise of a better material life, attracted many people from rural areas. Second, there were many schools established to educate the children of the new factory labourers. The promise of a better education persuaded many families to leave farming communities and move to the cities. Finally, as the cities grew, people established places of leisure, entertainment, and culture, such as sports stadiums, theatres, and museums. For many people, these facilities made city life appear more interesting than life on the farm, and therefore drew them away from rural communities.


Notice how each supporting sentence is a cause that explains the effect mentioned in the topic sentence. In the chart below are the main ideas of the above paragraph, to help you understand the relationships better:

EFFECT
(Topic Sentence)

CAUSES
(Supporting Sentences)

Cities have grown very large.
[There are several reasons for this.]

Factory jobs attracted people.

(Cities have grown very large.)

Better schools attracted families to move
to the city.

(Cities have grown very large.)

Places of leisure, entertainment, and culture
made city life appear more interesting.



Notice also how the topic sentence is followed by the "focusing" or "prediction" sentence, There are several reasons for this. Such sentences help the reader anticipate the organization of the paragraph or essay.


Cause and Effect Conjunctions

Here are some common conjunctions that can be used to express cause and effect:

Since

as a result

because of + noun phrase

Because

therefore

due to + noun phrase

consequently

for this reason

So


Adverbials Used for Cause & Effect (Result)

ADVERBS

SENTENCE TRANSITIONS

CONNECTORS

PREPOSITIONS

because
since
now that,
as,
as long as
inasmuch
so-that
such-that

Therefore,
Consequently,
Thus,
Hence,
For this reason,
As a result,

so
for

because of
due to

Exercises:

due to because therefore consequently so since because of as a result

Alvin missed the bus. ___________He woke up late.

My brother does not sleep very well. _________________ The neighbourhood is noisy.

January 1st is a holiday, ________________we don’t have to go to school

Yousef went back to Saudi Arabia ___ he needed to take care of some business in his company.

Learning how to write is important___________ most professional jobs require writing skills.

.

Select the correct connecor to fill in the blank. More than one answer may be correct. * Indicates an incorrect answer.

fist hitting laptop

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1. my computer froze, I had to restart it.
Since Because Consequently For

2. I couldn't get it to start again, the battery was dead.
so for because of because

3. I had left it on all day; , it was dead.
consequently because so that therefore

4. I needed to work, I had to go find the power cord.
For Since Due to Therefore

5. I had a "splitting headache" today. It got bad that I had to take a tablet.
such therefore so much so

6. technology is advancing, we will have to spend more time keeping up.
Now that Since Because Inasmuch as

7. People choose Apple computers their ease of use.
because due to due to the fact that because of

8. Other people prefer to use PCs they are more universally used.
because due to due to the fact that because of

9. Why did Jack buy an iMac? He bought one he could easily access the Internet.
so so that due to for

10.He had lots of free time, he spent it 'surfing' the Internet.
so so that for that reason, since



Sentence Type Basics for English Learners

There are four sentence types in English. The first sentence type is the most common:

Declarative

A declarative sentence "declares" or states a fact, arrangement or opinion. Declarative sentences can be either positive or negative. A declarative sentences ends with a period (.).

Examples

I'll meet you at the train station.
The sun rises in the East.
He doesn't get up early.

Imperative

The imperative commands (or sometimes requests). The imperative takes no subject as 'you' is the implied subject. The imperative form ends with either a period (.) or an exclamation point (!).

Examples

Open the door.
Finish your homework
Pick up that mess.

Interrogative

The interrogative asks a question. In the interrogative form the auxiliary verb precedes the subject which is then followed by the main verb (i.e., Are you coming ....?). The interrogative form ends with a question mark (?).

Examples

How long have you lived in France?
When does the bus leave?
Do you enjoy listening to classical music?

Exclamatory

The exclamatory form emphasizes a statement (either declarative or imperative) with an exclamation point (!).

Examples

Hurry up!
That sounds fantastic!
I can't believe you said that!

Sentence Types

All of these sentence types further fall into four basic sentence type categories in English.

· Simple

· Compound

· Complex

· Compound - Complex

Simple Sentences

Simple sentences contain no conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.).

Examples

Frank ate his dinner quickly.
Peter and Sue visited the museum last Saturday.
Are you coming to the party?

Compound Sentences

Compound sentences contain two statements that are connected by a conjunction (i.e., and, but, or, etc.).

Examples

I wanted to come, but it was late.
The company had an excellent year, so they gave everyone a bonus.
I went shopping, and my wife went to her classes.

Complex Sentences

Complex sentences contain a dependent clause and at least one independent clause. The two clauses are connected by a subordinator (i.e, which, who, although, despite, if, since, etc.).

Examples

My daughter, who was late for class, arrived shortly after the bell rang.
That's the man who bought our house
Although it was difficult, the class passed the test with excellent marks.

Compound - Complex Sentences

Compound - complex sentences contain at least one dependent clause and more than one independent clause. The clauses are connected by both conjunctions (i.e., but, so, and, etc.) and subordinators (i.e., who, because, although, etc.)

Examples

John, who briefly visited last month, won the prize, and he took a short vacation.
Jack forgot his friend's birthday, so he sent him a card when he finally remembered.
The report which Tom complied was presented to the board, but it was rejected because it was too complex.

Building a sentence

A sentence is a group of words which starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!). A sentence contains or implies a predicate and a subject.

Sentences contain clauses.

Simple sentences have one clause.

Compound sentences and complex sentences have two or more clauses.

Sentences can contain subjects and objects.

The subject in a sentence is generally the person or thing carrying out an action. The object in a sentence is involved in an action but does not carry it out, the object comes after the verb.

For example:

The boy climbed a tree.

If you want to say more about the subject (the boy) or the object (the tree), you can add an adjective.

For example:

The young boy climbed a tall tree.

If you want to say more about how he climbed the tree you can use an adverb.

For example:

The young boy quickly climbed a tall tree.

The sentence becomes more interesting as it gives the reader or listener more information.

There are more things you can add to enrich your sentence.

Parts of a sentence

Description

Adjective

Describes things or people.

Adverb

Alters the meaning of the verb slightly

Article

a, an - indefinite articles
the - definite articles

Conjunction

Joins words or sentences together

Interjection

A short word showing emotion or feeling

Noun

Names things

Preposition

Relates one thing to another

Pronoun

used instead of a noun to avoid repetition

Proper noun (subject)

The actual names of people or places etc.

Verb

Action or doing word

Sentences

A sentence is the written expression of a complete thought. In most sentences the reader is given one complete piece of information. This unit teaches you how sentences work and how to write a good sentence.

A sentence needs to contain the following:

  • a capital letter at the beginning and a full stop at the end
  • a subject (person / people or thing(s) that is / are doing something)
  • a verb (action or doing word).

Example

Example of the parts of a sentence.

The time (tense) can be past, present or future.

Simple sentences

There are three main types of sentences. The first of these is called a simple sentence.

  • A simple sentence has one independent clause and expresses one idea.

Example

Example of a simple sentence.

  • A simple sentence must have one subject - verb combination but the subject may be compound, ie have more than one element.

Example

Example of a compound sentence

  • A simple sentence can also have a compound verb construction.

Example

Simple sentence with compund verb construction.

Simple sentences can only have only one subject-verb combination and commas are not used. Below are some examples of the different combinations that you might find in simple sentences.

Examples

Example of different forms of simple sentence constructions.

Compound sentences

The second type of sentence is the compound sentence. This sentence is composed of two simple sentences joined together by a comma and a joining word (coordinating conjunction). We could also describe a compound sentence as two independent clauses joined by a conjunction.There are seven coordinating conjunctions:

  • and
  • but
  • so
  • or
  • for
  • nor
  • yet.

Example

Example of a compound sentence.

Complex sentences

Clauses are groups of words that form sentences. A clause must contain a subject and a verb.
There are two types of clauses:

  • independent - expresses a complete idea, ie a sentence, and makes sense all by itself
  • dependent - does not express a complete idea, it is a part sentence, and does not make sense by itself).

Dependent clauses begin with a subordinating conjunction, eg who, when, while, that, because, since, although.

Example

Example of a dependent and independent clause.

Introduction

Statistics on the brain drain from Africa are scarce but troubling.
According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Africa has already lost one third of its human capital and is continuing to lose its skilled personnel at an increasing rate, with an estimated 20,000 doctors, university lecturers, engineers and other professionals leaving the continent annually.................

Causes Of Brain Drain

Push Factors

Pull Factors

• Lack of research and other facilities,including support staff; inadequacy of research funds, lack of professional equipment and tools.

• Low and eroding wages and salaries.


• Unsatisfactory living conditions, lack of
transport, housing, etc.

• Under-utilization of qualified personnel;
lack of satisfactory working conditions;
low prospect of professional development

• Substantial funds for research,advanced technology, modern facilities;availability of experienced support staff.

• Higher wages and income.

• Higher standard of living.

• Better working conditions;
Impacts of Brain Drain

Effects of Brain Drain

Negative Effects

• Reduces the already low quantity of skilled manpower available in African countries and needed for their development.

• Reduces numbers of dynamic and innovative people, whether entrepreneurs or academics
• Increases dependence on foreign technical assistance
• Slows the transfer of technology and widens the gap between African and industrialized countries

Positive Effects

• Contribution of new skills when migrants return

• Remittances from skilled migrants boosts household welfare

• Remittances support the balance of payments
Best estimates suggest that Africans working abroad send home some US$45 billion a year.

Possible Solutions

•develop and valorize Africa's human resources and create
job and career opportunities .

•Respect and consolidation of human rights and democracy,namely freedom of speech.

•establish necessary and positive political, social and economic conditions that would serve as incentives to curb the brain drain.

•the necessity of setting Meritocracyand transparency as the only criteria in promotions and appointments.


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